richard green Ken Howard

Henry Moore (Castleford, Yorkshire 1898 - Much Hadham, England 1986)

  • Henry Moore - Reclining Figure
    Henry Moore Reclining Figure Signed & numbered 5/9
    Bronze
    7 in
    17.8 cm
    Full details

    BM 163

     

    HENRY MOORE OM CH

     Castleford, Yorks 1898 - 1986 Much Hadham, Herts

     

    Reclining Figure

     

    Signed & numbered on the side of the base: Moore 5/9

    Bronze: 7 in / 17.8 cm length

    Conceived and cast in 1983 in a numbered edition of 9 plus one artist’s copy

    LH 905

     

    Provenance:

    James Kirkman, London

    Rex Irwin, Sydney, acquired from the above

    Private collection, Sydney, acquired from the above

    Private collection, Australia

    Sale, Christie’s London, 1st July 1999, lot 699

    Private collection, UK, purchased at the above sale

    Private collection, gifted from the above in 1999

     

    Exhibited:

    Sydney, Rex Irwin Art Dealer, Henry Moore: A Tribute, 1990, no. 12  

     

    Literature:

    John Hedgecoe, A Monumental Vision, The Sculpture of Henry Moore, Stewart Tabori & Chan, London, 1998, no. 768, another cast illustrated p. 250

    Alan Bowness (ed.), Henry Moore: Complete Sculpture 1980-86, Vol. 6, Lund Humphries, London, revised 1999, no. 905, another cast illustrated p. 60, pl. 131 & 132

     

     

    ‘From the very beginning the reclining figure has been my main theme. The first one I made was around 1924, and probably more than half of my sculptures since then have been reclining figures’ (the artist cited in J. Hedgecoe and H. Moore, Henry Spencer Moore, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1968, p. 151).

     

    Moore’s enthusiasm for the reclining figure continued amidst a sequence of new themes, allowing him to pursue unexpected formal possibilities: ‘I want to be quite free of having to find a ‘reason’ for doing the Reclining Figures, and freer still of having to find a ‘meaning’ for them. The vital thing for an artist is to have a subject that allows to try out all kinds of formal ideas – things that he doesn’t yet know about for certain but wants to experiment with, as Cézanne did in his ‘Bathers’ series. In my case the reclining figure provides chances of that sort. The subject-matter is given. It’s settled for you, and you know it and like it, so that within it, within the subject that you’ve done a dozen times before, you are free to invent a completely new form-idea’ (the artist cited in John Russell, Henry Moore, Allen Lane, The Penguin Press, London 1968, p.28).

     

     

    Henry Moore, Reclining Figure, 1983 (cast 0)

    The Henry Moore Foundation

     

     


    HENRY MOORE OM CH

    Castleford, Yorks 1898 - 1986 Much Hadham, Herts

     

    The seventh child of Raymond Spencer and Mary Moore, Henry was born in Castleford, Yorkshire in 1898. His paternal great-grandfather was of Irish origin, but his father and grandfather were born in Yorkshire where, for two or three generations, they worked the land or went down the mines. At the age of twelve Moore obtained a grant to study at the Grammar School in Castleford where he was inspired by his art teacher to pursue a career in the arts. In 1916 he began to teach, but by February 1917 he had joined the army and left to fight in France. After being wounded in action in November 1917 at the battle of Cambrai, Moore was excused from active service. He returned to England, where he became a physical education instructor in the army. At the end of the war, Moore received a veteran’s grant to study at Leeds School of Art and in 1921 he joined a course at the Royal College of Art in London. A further grant enabled him to travel extensively from 1925, visiting Rome, Florence, Venice, Ravenna and Paris, where he met Picasso, Giacometti, Ernst, Eluard and Breton among others.

     

    On returning from his travels Moore was appointed Professor of Sculpture at the Royal College of Art where he worked two days a week until 1931, as well as teaching at the Chelsea School of Art until 1939. He was appointed an Official War Artist during the Second World War from 1940–1942 for which he made a series of drawings of people sheltering in the London Underground, as well as studies of miners at the coal face. In these pictures he frequently used watercolour over wax crayon. After the war Moore enjoyed a great deal of success, with his works receiving critical acclaim all around the world. He executed many major commissions for museums, public institutions, private collectors and municipal buildings and as a result he became one of the most famous British artists of the twentieth century.

     

    At the beginning of the 1970s Moore created a foundation, the aim of which was to promote public awareness of sculpture and to protect his own work for the future. Located in his home village of Much Hadham, Hertfordshire, the foundation houses a library, archives and a collection of drawings, prints, maquettes and sculptures by the artist. Heavily influenced by the work of Michelangelo, Moore created monumental works in marble, stone and bronze and was enthralled by the theme of the family, and in particular the mother and child. His unique oeuvre draws inspiration from prehistoric, archaic, Egyptian, African, Mexican and Roman sculpture. Throughout his career he was noted for his output of graphic art – drawings, watercolours, etchings and lithographs which were not necessarily related to individual sculptures.

     

  • Henry Moore - Madonna and Child
    Henry Moore Madonna and Child Signed on the back: H Moore
    Bronze
    5 3/4 in
    14.6 cm
    Full details

     

    BM 79

     

    HENRY MOORE OM CH

    Castleford, Yorks 1898 - 1986 Much Hadham, Herts

     

    Madonna and Child

     

    Signed on the back: H MOORE

    Bronze with green and brown patina: 5 ¾ in / 14.6 cm height

    (excluding base)

    Wood base: 3 ⅝ x 3 ¼ x 1 ¾ in / 9.2 x 8.2 x 4.4 cm

    Conceived in terracotta in 1943 and cast in bronze in an unnumbered edition of 7

    LH 223

     

    Provenance:

    Jeffrey H. Loria & Co., Inc, New York, acquired from the artist

    Mr & Mrs Harry M. Goldblatt, May 1969, acquired from the above

     

    Literature:

    Robert Melville, Henry Moore, Sculpture and Drawings, 1921-1969, London, 1970, p. 351, no. 308 (another cast illustrated)

    David Mitchinson (ed.), Henry Moore Sculpture, With Comments by the Artist, London, 1981, p. 310, no. 158 (another cast illustrated p. 91)

    David Sylvester (ed.), Henry Moore, Complete Sculpture 1921-48, Vol. 1, Lund Humphries, London, 1988, p. 13, no. 223 (terracotta version illustrated p. 138)

     

     

    The present work was cast from a terracotta model made in 1943 for the Horton stone Madonna and Child at the Parish Church of St Matthew’s, Northampton, which Moore described as ‘one of the most difficult and heart searching sculptures that I ever tried to do’.[1] Having seen Moore’s Shelter Drawings, the Rev. Walter Hussey (later Dean of Chichester) commissioned the sculpture to commemorate the half-centenary of the church, giving the artist his first opportunity to carve in stone since the start of the war.[2] Despite the clear correspondence of the subject to his preoccupation with the Mother and Child theme, the gravity of the commission made Moore apprehensive and he insisted upon months of preparatory drawing and approximately twelve clay models before being satisfied that his idea could be realised.

     

    ‘I began thinking of the ‘Madonna and Child’ for St Matthew’s considering in what ways a ‘Madonna and Child’ differs from a carving of just a ‘Mother and Child’ – that is, by considering how in my opinion religious art differs from secular art. It’s not easy to describe in words what this difference is, except by saying in general terms that the ‘Madonna and Child’ should have an austerity and a nobility, and some touch of grandeur (even hieratic aloofness) which is missing in the everyday ‘Mother and Child’ idea. Of the sketches and models I have done, the one chosen has I think a quiet dignity and gentleness. I have tried to give a sense of complete easiness and repose, as though the Madonna could stay in that position for ever (as being in stone, she will have to do)’ (the artist cited in D. Sylvester (ed.), op cit., p. XXV).

     

     


    HENRY MOORE OM CH

    Castleford, Yorks 1898 - 1986 Much Hadham, Herts

     

    The seventh child of Raymond Spencer and Mary Moore, Henry was born in Castleford, Yorkshire in 1898. His paternal great-grandfather was of Irish origin, but his father and grandfather were born in Yorkshire where, for two or three generations, they worked the land or went down the mines. At the age of twelve Moore obtained a grant to study at the Grammar School in Castleford where he was inspired by his art teacher to pursue a career in the arts. In 1916 he began to teach, but by February 1917 he had joined the army and left to fight in France.

     

    After being wounded in action in November 1917 at the battle of Cambrai, Moore was excused from active service. He returned to England, where he became a physical education instructor in the army. At the end of the war, Moore received a veteran’s grant to study at Leeds School of Art and in 1921 he joined a course at the Royal College of Art in London. A further grant enabled him to travel extensively from 1925, visiting Rome, Florence, Venice, Ravenna and Paris, where he met Picasso, Giacometti, Ernst, Eluard and Breton among others.

     

    On returning from his travels Moore was appointed Professor of Sculpture at the Royal College of Art where he worked two days a week until 1931, as well as teaching at the Chelsea School of Art until 1939. He was appointed an Official War Artist during the Second World War from 1940–1942 for which he made a series of drawings of people sheltering in the London Underground, as well as studies of miners at the coal face. In these pictures he frequently used watercolour over wax crayon.

     

    After the war Moore enjoyed a great deal of success, with his works receiving critical acclaim all around the world. He executed many major commissions for museums, public institutions, private collectors and municipal buildings and as a result he became one of the most famous British artists of the twentieth century.

     

    At the beginning of the 1970s Moore created a foundation, the aim of which was to promote public awareness of sculpture and to protect his own work for the future. Located in his home village of Much Hadham, Hertfordshire, the foundation houses a library, archives and a collection of drawings, prints, maquettes and sculptures by the artist. Heavily influenced by the work of Michelangelo, Moore created monumental works in marble, stone and bronze and was enthralled by the theme of the family, and in particular the mother and child. His unique oeuvre draws inspiration from prehistoric, archaic, Egyptian, African, Mexican and Roman sculpture. Throughout his career he was noted for his output of graphic art – drawings, watercolours, etchings and lithographs which were not necessarily related to individual sculptures.

     

     

    [1] The artist cited in J. Hedgecoe and H. Moore, Henry Spencer Moore, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1968, p. 159.

    [2] He also commissioned Benjamin Britten to compose a cantata for the celebration.

  • Henry Moore - Family Group
    Henry Moore Family Group Signed and dated '48
    Watercolour, wax crayon,wash,pen & ink and pencil
    25 x 20 1/2 in
    63.5 x 52.1 cm
    Full details

    BL 116

     

    HENRY MOORE OM CH

    Castleford 1898 - 1986 Much Hadham

     

    Family Group

     

    Signed and dated lower right: Moore / 48

    Pencil, wax crayon, watercolour wash, pen and ink, brush and ink on card:

    25 x 20 ½ in / 63.5 x 52.1 cm

    Frame size: 36 x 31 in / 91.4 x 78.7 cm

     

    Recorded in the Henry Moore Foundation archives as HMF 2506

     

    Provenance:

    Ayala Zacks-Abramov, Toronto & Jerusalem, purchased directly from the artist,

    then by descent

     

    Exhibited:

    Toronto, Art Gallery of Toronto, A Selection from the Ayala and Sam Zacks Collection: Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Paintings and Drawings, 1956-57, cat. no. 80, illustrated in catalogue p. 60, pl. 50

     

    Literature:

    Ann Garrould (ed.), Henry Moore, Complete Drawings, 1940-1949, Vol. III, The Henry Moore Foundation in association with Lund Humphries, London, 2001, p. 286, no. AG 48.38 (HMF 2506)

     

    This exceptional Family Group is part of an important series of large, highly finished drawings executed by Henry Moore in 1948, representing the culmination of his meditations on the theme inspired by a public commission with personal significance.[1] The intricately modelled, monumental seated figures seem to radiate light and solidity, their tight-knit arrangement of interwoven arms and legs forming a central, circular space in which the object of the parents’ and picture’s focus tentatively stands. In contrast to the frontal or linear organisation of other Family Groups of this date, Moore’s contained and beautifully balanced family of three turn to face each other, connected by and devoted to the protection of their child. The dexterity of the figures three-dimensional description adds to the strength and positivity of the composition. Their elegant, overlapping limbs, defined by the artist’s decisive and refined two-way sectional line technique in ink and crayon are thrown into relief by the balance of linear shading and wash

    with glowing areas of wax-resisted card heightened with white. Their skilfully modelled elbows and knees seem to bend towards and simultaneously project out of the heart of the picture. Even the curved oval base upon which the family sits suggests a comforting containment. The stand, the luminous, rough textured appearance of the figures as well as the bricklike articulation of their setting, reveals the sculptural inspiration behind this highly finished, rich and sophisticated drawing.[2]

     

    The idea of the family group originated from a public commission for Village College Impington, suggested to Moore by the architect Walter Gropius in the late 1930s. The school aimed to employ the progressive educational ideas of Henry Morris, the Director for Education in Cambridgeshire, in particular that rural schools should provide facilities for parents as well as children, providing space for films, plays and lectures, to become the social centre of the community. This notion of family unity was to be realised in Moore’s sculpture.[3] Postponed by the advent of the War, Moore returned to the idea in 1944 when the commission was temporarily revived and began making ‘drawings in note book form of family groups.

    From these notebook drawings I made a number of small maquettes…Some of the maquettes were ideas for bronze, but most of them were for stone because for the Impington school I

    felt stone would be the suitable material’.[4] Moore was delighted in 1947 to receive a second public commission for a family group from John Newson, the Director of Education for Hertfordshire, for Barclay Secondary School, as it provided an opportunity to realise his ideas on the subject on a large scale. Having visited the site, Moore chose from his previous models on the theme, enlarging a terracotta Maquette of 1945. Moore made four large bronze Family Groups for the project during 1948–49, the main sculpture situated at Barclay School, Stevenage, with the other three in the collections of the Tate, London, the Museum of Modern Art, New York and the private collection of Nelson Rockefeller, New York. Although the arrangement of the present drawing varies in several respects from the final sculpture, it retains perhaps its most important compositional element: ‘the child is shown in the arms of his parents, as though the two arms come together and a knot is tied by the child’.[5]

     

    Notwithstanding the stimulus of these public commissions, Moore was fascinated by the subject of the mother and child throughout his career and executed numerous versions in a wide variety of media. ‘From very early on I have had an obsession with the Madonna and Child theme. It has been a universal theme from the beginning of time and some of the earliest sculptures we’ve found from the Neolithic Age are of a Mother and Child. I discovered, when drawing, I could turn every little scribble, blot or smudge into a Mother and Child…So that I was conditioned, as it were, to see it in everything. I suppose it could be explained as a “Mother” complex’.[6] In 1946 depictions of the bond of parental love took on an even greater personal resonance for Moore as his first and only child, Mary, was born on 7th March, named after her paternal grandmother and aunt.

     

     

    Family Group, 1944

    Watercolour, ink, crayon and chalk on paper: 52.3 x 44.9 cm

    National Galleries Scotland [GMA 2065]

     

    Family Group, 1948

    Chalk, coloured wax crayon, wash and opaque white over graphite on paper: 53.9 x 67.6 cm

    National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Massey Collection [4925]

     

     

    Note on provenance Ayala Zacks-Abramov (1912-2011)

     

    ‘Through paintings we became aware of the acute sensitivity of drawings, so often the first expression of an artist’s inspiration. Interested in the creative processes as well as in the results, we found ourselves responding to drawings with a deep sense of intimate contact with the act of creation; our eyes and hearts were perpetually turning to them. Drawings led us to sculpture, and this is why in our collection there are so many drawings by sculptors – Rodin, Matisse, Giacometti, Henry Moore, to mention a few.’

    Ayala Zacks, ‘Art as a way of life’, A Tribute to Samuel J Zacks from the Sam and Ayala Zacks Collection, Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, 1971. 

     

    Ayala Ben-Tovim, collector and patron of the arts referred to as ‘Canada’s Peggy Guggenheim’, was born in Jerusalem, grew up in Tel Aviv and studied in London and Paris where she acquired a taste for modern art. While studying in Paris, Ayala met and married Maurice Fleg in 1938, joining the French Resistance after he was killed in action in 1940. After the War she met her second husband, the Canadian economist and art collector, Samuel Jacob Zacks (1904-1970), in Switzerland. They married in 1947 and moved to Canada. Sam and Ayala became prominent art collectors of international repute, acquiring masterpieces by Pissarro, Gauguin, Rodin, Picasso, Matisse, Kandinsky, Chagall, Miro, Klee and Giacometti amongst others, assembling an extensive collection by the late 1950s that was in continual demand by museums around the world.

     

    Sam and Ayala also supported and encouraged young, emerging artists, including Dubuffet, Tapies and Davie. They had close relationships with many artists, Henry Moore being one of the most illustrious. As well as resulting in the purchase of a number of his works, their friendship paved the way for a gift of Moore sculptures to the Art Gallery of Ontario and the Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Along with numerous long-term loans, in 1956 the couple donated a collection of Canadian art to Queens University, Sam Zacks Alma Mater, the first of several significant gifts to institutions in Israel and Canada, including Hazor Archaeological Museum, the Royal Ontario Museum and the Art Gallery of Ontario (a gift of more than 300 works which formed the basis of their modern European art collection). The Ayala and Sam Zacks Pavilion at the Tel Aviv Museum was built in 1971. The Israel Museum also has a wing named after Zacks-Abramov.

     

    Sam and Ayala sat on numerous art Boards for the International Committee of Museums (ICOM), UNESCO, the International Committee of the Museum of Modern Art, the Art Gallery of Ontario and others. Sam received an Honorary Fellowship from St Peters Colleg e, Oxford in 1969, the year before his death in Toronto. Ayala Zacks was awarded the Order of Canada and an honorary degree from the University of Toronto. Following Sam’s death, Ayala returned to Israel and married her third husband, Zalman Abramov, a Lawyer and politician who legislated the Museums Law in 1976. Mrs Zacks-Abramov established a Trust Fund at Toronto’s York University in the name of her late second husband for Fine Arts students.

     

    In his introduction to the exhibition of Ayala and Sam Zacks Collection, the Director of the Royal Ontario Museum, Theodore Allen Heinrich, wrote of the collector’s ‘…deep interest in the processes of artistic creation, particularly as here shown in a variety of important drawings, a respect for craftsmanship, for integrity of line, form and colour, and a sure eye for a moment of triumphant synthesis in the development of an artist are all talismans which have contributed strongly to the attainment of an impressively high level of both quality and interest in the collection.’ (Art Gallery of Toronto, op. cit., p.5)

     


    HENRY MOORE OM, CH

     Castleford, Yorkshire 1898 - 1986 Much Hadham, Herts

     

     

    The seventh child of Raymond Spencer and Mary Moore, Henry was born in Castleford, Yorkshire in 1898. His paternal great-grandfather was of Irish origin, but his father and grandfather were born in Yorkshire where, for two or three generations, they worked the land or went down the mines. At the age of twelve Moore obtained a grant to study at the Grammar School in Castleford where he was inspired by his art teacher to pursue a career in the arts. In 1916 he began to teach, but by February 1917 he had joined the army and left to fight in

    France.

     

    After being wounded in action in November 1917 at the battle of Cambrai, Moore was excused from active service. He returned to England, where he became a physical education instructor in the army. At the end of the war, Moore received a veteran’s grant to study at Leeds School of Art and in 1921 he joined a course at the Royal College of Art in London. A further grant enabled him to travel extensively from 1925, visiting Rome, Florence, Venice, Ravenna and Paris, where he met Picasso, Giacometti, Ernst, Eluard and Breton among others.

     

    On returning from his travels Moore was appointed Professor of Sculpture at the Royal College of Art where he worked two days a week until 1931, as well as teaching at the Chelsea School of Art until 1939. He was appointed an Official War Artist during the Second World War from 1940–1942 for which he made a series of drawings of people sheltering in the London Underground, as well as studies of miners at the coal face. In these pictures he frequently used

    watercolour over wax crayon.

     

    After the war Moore enjoyed a great deal of success, with his works receiving critical acclaim all around the world. He executed many major commissions for museums, public institutions, private collectors and municipal buildings and as a result he became one of the most famous British artists of the twentieth century.

     

    At the beginning of the 1970s Moore created a foundation, the aim of which was to promote public awareness of sculpture and to protect his own work for the future. Located in his home village of Much Hadham, Hertfordshire, the foundation houses a library, archives and a collection of drawings, prints, maquettes and sculptures by the artist. Heavily influenced by the work of Michelangelo, Moore created monumental works in marble, stone and bronze and was enthralled by the theme of the family, and in particular the mother and child. His unique oeuvre draws inspiration from prehistoric, archaic, Egyptian, African, Mexican and Roman sculpture.

    Throughout his career he was noted for his output of graphic art – drawings, watercolours, etchings and lithographs which were not necessarily related to individual sculptures.

     

    [1] Other examples of large Family Group drawings from 1948 are in the collections of the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa and the Art Gallery of Ontario.

    [2] Ann Garrould suggests that ‘Moore had probably seen the site at Barclay School, Stevenage, where the sculpture LH 269 was to be placed in front of a brick wall.’ AG. 48. 33, op.cit., p. 285.

    [3] A detailed account of the commission is recalled by the artist in Philip James, Henry Moore on Sculpture, MacDonald, London, 1966, pp. 224–229.

    [4] The artist cited in A. Wilkinson (ed.), Henry Moore: Writings and Conversations, Lund Humphries, Aldershot, 2002, p. 273.

    [5] The artist cited in David Mitchinson (ed.), Henry Moore Sculpture, with Comments by the Artist, London, 1981, p. 102.

    [6] The artist cited in John Hedgecoe and H. Moore, Henry Spencer Moore, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1968, p. 61.

  • Henry Moore - Shelter Drawing: Seated Mother and Child
    Henry Moore Shelter Drawing: Seated Mother and Child Signed
    Pencil, ink, watercolour & gouache
    14.3 x 11 in
    36.4 x 27.9 cm
    Full details

    BJ 104

     

    HENRY MOORE OM CH

    Castleford 1898 - 1986 Much Hadham

     

    Shelter Drawing: Seated Mother and Child

     

    Signed Moore and inscribed ‘Fill in corners with/Neutral Grey w/col’

    Pencil, wax crayon, coloured crayon, watercolour, pastel, gouache, pen and ink on paper: 14 ⅜ x 11 in / 36.4 x 27.9 cm

    Framed size: 23 ¼ x 19 ½ in / 59.1 x 49.5 cm

     

    Executed c.1941

     

    Recorded in the Henry Moore Foundation archives as HMF 1861a

     

    Provenance:

    Private collection, UK, 1950s, then by descent

     

    Exhibited:

    Spain, Barcelona, Fundacio “la Caixa”, Henry Moore, 18th July – 15th October 2006

    London, Tate Britain, Henry Moore, 24th February – 8th August 2010; then travelled to The Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, 23rd October 2010 - 6th February 2011 and Leeds Art Gallery, 4th March – 12th June 2011, cat. no. 103

     

    Literature:

    Chris Stephens (ed.), Henry Moore, exhibition catalogue, Tate Publishing, London, 2010, cat. no. 103, p. 171, illustrated in colour

     

    When Sir Kenneth Clark, Director of the National Gallery and Chairman of the War Artists’ Advisory Committee, was shown the first shelter sketchbook, he persuaded Moore to reconsider becoming a War Artist. Roughly sixty-five finished drawings were enlarged from the shelter sketchbook studies, seventeen of which were purchased by the WAAC and following their exhibition at the National Gallery in London were distributed amongst English museums.

    Moore was already a successful artist, but the public reception of these drawings effected an immediate change in the perception of his work and he was able to make a living without the support of teaching for the first time. This also marked a turning point in the course of his work: ‘Without the war, which directed one to life itself... I think I would have been a far less sensitive and responsible person – if I had ignored all that and went on working just as before. The war brought out and encouraged the humanist side in one’s work’ (the artist cited in Roger Berthoud, The Life of Henry Moore, Faber and Faber, London, 1987, p. 176).

     

    Moore revisited and reworked some of his most successful shelter compositions, such as Woman Seated in the Underground, 1941 (Tate Gallery, presented by the War Artists’ Advisory Committee in 1946), in a more naturalistic and technically sophisticated style. The present work combines two different aspects of the underground scenes and the artist’s favourite motifs: the mother and child and reclining figures. Seated on a bench against a brick-coloured wall, Moore’s mother is intricately described with a dense structure of black ink over white crayon with touches of yellow; her form whole, her features clear and expressive. The fingers of her right hand are held against her breast holding those of her child, her left hand holding the bowl and spoon with which she has been feeding him. Prefiguring Moore’s later series of Madonna and Child studies on paper and in sculpture (the vortex-like tunnel behind also a receding halo), the figures embody familial devotion and the heroism of humanity in the face of apocalyptic fear. As seen in the previous work, Moore’s use of drapery was important in establishing the substance and poise of his figures, a result of his study of classical sculpture. Referring to a marble Nereid from Xanthos in Lycia, c. 400BC, he commented, ‘The drapery here is so sensitively carved that it gives the impression of light, flimsy material, wet with spray, being blown against the body by the wind. It shows how drapery can reveal the form more effectively than if the figure were nude because it can emphasise the prominent parts of the body, and falls slackly in the hollows. This is something I learned when I came to do the Shelter drawings, in which all the figures are draped’ (Henry Moore, Henry Moore at the British Museum, British Museum Publications Ltd., London, 1981, p. 62).

     

    Diminishing into the distance behind the woman’s left shoulder, the underground tunnel is lined with the draped, sculptural forms of reclining figures. Moore produced at least ten variations of the tube tunnel perspective in various colour combinations in his Large Shelter Sketchbook of 1941. The swirling vortex depicts the extension to Liverpool Street Underground, which the

    artist found the most visually arresting of stations: ‘The new tunnel had been completed except for the rails and at night its entire length was occupied by a double row of sleeping figures’ (the artist cited in John Hedgecoe and Henry Moore, Henry Moore, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1968, p. 140).  This drawing is very similar in size and format to Shelter scene, c. 1942, in the collection of Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut. Both works are thought to belong to a group of eight shelter drawings ‘drawn in the middle of large paper sheets, each originally 380 x 280 mm, allowing for a wide border to be covered by a curved mount’.[1] Other pages from this group are in the collections of the David and Alfred Smart Museum of Art, University of Chicago; The Henry Moore Foundation; the Robert and Lisa Sainsbury Collection, University of East Anglia, Norwich and the Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven.

     

    Interweaving more than five different media, this beautiful drawing creates an incredible sense of depth with the layering of washes and the density of line, projecting the central figures forth via the wax resist technique: ‘I sketched with pen and ink, wax crayons and watercolour, using the wax-resist technique which I had discovered by accident before the war. I had been doing a drawing for my three-year old niece using two or three wax crayons. Wishing to add some colour, I found a box of watercolour paints and was delighted to see the watercolour run off the parts of the drawing that had a surface of wax. It was like magic and I found it very useful when doing my sketch books’ (the artist cited in J. Hedgecoe and H. Moore, ibid., p. 140).

     

    The shelter drawings, Lord Clark later said, ‘showed not only insight and compassion but marvellous graphic skill. Since circumstances kept him from his sculpture, he became, in effect, a painter’ (cited in A. Garrould, Henry Moore Drawings, Thames and Hudson, London, 1988, pp. 18–20).

     

     

    Henry Moore, Woman Seated in the Underground 1941

    Gouache, ink, watercolour and crayon on paper: 48.3 x 38.1 cm

    Tate, presented by the War Artists Advisory Committee 1946

     

     


    HENRY MOORE OM CH

    Castleford 1898 - 1986 Much Hadham

     

    The seventh child of Raymond Spencer and Mary Moore, Henry was born in Castleford, Yorkshire in 1898. His paternal great-grandfather was of Irish origin, but his father and grandfather were born in Yorkshire where, for two or three generations, they worked the land or went down the mines. At the age of twelve Moore obtained a grant to study at the Grammar School in Castleford where he was inspired by his art teacher to pursue a career in the arts. In 1916 he began to teach, but by February 1917 he had joined the army and left to fight in

    France. After being wounded in action in November 1917 at the battle of Cambrai, Moore was excused from active service. He returned to England, where he became a physical education instructor in the army. At the end of the war, Moore received a veteran’s grant to study at Leeds School of Art and in 1921 he joined a course at the Royal College of Art in London. A further grant enabled him to travel extensively from 1925, visiting Rome, Florence, Venice, Ravenna and Paris, where he met Picasso, Giacometti, Ernst, Eluard and Breton among others.

     

    On returning from his travels Moore was appointed Professor of Sculpture at the Royal College of Art where he worked two days a week until 1931, as well as teaching at the Chelsea School of Art until 1939. He was appointed an Official War Artist during the Second World War from 1940–1942 for which he made a series of drawings of people sheltering in the London Underground, as well as studies of miners at the coal face. In these pictures he frequently used

    watercolour over wax crayon. After the war Moore enjoyed a great deal of success, with his works receiving critical acclaim all around the world. He executed many major commissions for museums, public institutions, private collectors and municipal buildings and as a result he became one of the most famous British artists of the twentieth century.

     

    At the beginning of the 1970s Moore created a foundation, the aim of which was to promote public awareness of sculpture and to protect his own work for the future. Located in his home village of Much Hadham, Hertfordshire, the foundation houses a library, archives and a collection of drawings, prints, maquettes and sculptures by the artist. Heavily influenced by the work of Michelangelo, Moore created monumental works in marble, stone and bronze and was enthralled by the theme of the family, and in particular the mother and child. His unique oeuvre draws inspiration from prehistoric, archaic, Egyptian, African, Mexican and Roman sculpture.

    Throughout his career he was noted for his output of graphic art – drawings, watercolours, etchings and lithographs which were not necessarily related to individual sculptures.

     

    [1] ‘It is known that Heinz Roland [of Roland, Browse and Delbanco gallery] used this style of mounting, and it is likely that Moore made these drawings at his request…c1942’ (A. Garrould, op. cit., p.106).

  • Henry Moore - Three Women in a Shelter
    Henry Moore Three Women in a Shelter Signed, inscribed and dated 1941 on reverse
    Wax crayon on paper
    6 7/8 x 10 in
    17.5 x 25.4 cm
    Full details

    SP 5189

     

    HENRY MOORE OM, CH

     Castleford, Yorkshire 1898 - 1986 Much Hadham, Herts

     

    Three Women in a Shelter

     

    Signed, dated and inscribed ‘Henry Moore / Three Women in Shelter /(one knitting & one with a child). 1941’ on the reverse

    Wax crayon, watercolour wash and pencil on paper:

    6 ⅞ x 10 in / 17.5 x 25.4 cm

    Frame size: 16 ¾ x 19 ½ in / 42.5 x 49.5 cm

     

    Recorded in the Henry Moore Foundation archives as HMF 1759

     

    Provenance:

    Redfern Gallery, London

    Private collection, USA

    Sale, Doyle, New York, 13th November 2001, lot 47

    Private collection, UK

     

    Literature:

    Ann Garrould (ed.), Henry Moore, Complete Drawings 1940–1949, Vol. 3, The Henry Moore Foundation in association with Lund Humphries, Aldershot, 2001, no. AG 41.1, illustrated p. 81

     

     

    Henry Moore was living in Burcroft cottage in Kingston, Kent, when war was declared on 3rd September 1939, driving up to London a few days a week to teach at the Chelsea School of Art. With the fall of France and the threat of invasion, by June 1940 he and his wife Irina had returned to their studio at 11a Parkhill Road, Hampstead. Shortly after Hepworth and Nicholson’s move to Cornwall with the triplets, the Moores accepted the offer of their less expensive space at No. 7 The Mall Studios (just off Parkhill Road) by early September. A month later, after a weekend at the home of their friend Leonard Matters in Hertfordshire, they came back to find the studio badly damaged by bomb blast. The Moores returned to Much Hadham that night and within a few months were renting an old farmhouse called Hoglands in the nearby hamlet of Perry Green which would remain home for the rest of their lives.[1]

     

    Moore initially refused the honour of becoming an Official War Artist, but was drawn to the subject of Londoners seeking refuge from the Blitz (which started on 7th September 1940) from his first sight of the shelterers at Belsize Park tube station: ‘I had never seen so many rows of reclining figures and even the holes out of which the trains were coming seemed to me to be like the holes in my sculpture…People who were obviously strangers to one another forming tight

    little intimate groups. They were cut off from what was happening up above, but they were aware of it. There was tension in the air. They were a bit like the chorus in a Greek drama telling

     

     

     

    us about the violence we don’t actually witness’ (Henry Moore: A Shelter Sketchbook, British Museum Publications, London, 1988, p. 9).

     

    Following this affecting experience, Moore began to travel by tube visiting the underground

    stations where people sought shelter, making notes to recall subjects and poses which he would sketch from memory the following day.[2] He would then execute larger, more finished drawings based on his notebook sketches. Three Women in a Shelter, which is squared in pencil ready for transfer, is the preparatory sketch for Shelter Drawing: Three Fates, 1941 [HMF 1830, AG p. 100] in the collection of Brighton Museum and Art Gallery, gifted from the Contemporary Art Society in 1942. The figures in both works refer to The Fates of Greek mythology otherwise known as The Moirai: Lachesis, Clotho and Atropos, whose winding, measuring and cutting of the metaphorical thread of life determined mortal destinies.[3] Moore’s own life-thread connects the figures to the three important women in his own family and his frequent models, his mother, his sister and his wife. The strange triumvirate, one holding a child, one knitting, one with hands clasped in her lap, brilliantly portray the tension of enforced intimacy, the fragility of life and the threat of violence unseen by combining shelter scenes remembered with imagined sculptural forms. The naturalistic bodies engaged in acts of domesticity combined with abstracted heads signifying psychological disquiet.

     

    Trapped within the shadowy confines of an air-raid shelter, the artist emphasizes the sense of claustrophobia with the dramatic perspective of the corrugated walls, ruled first with pencil then black crayon and covered with a dark wash broken with narrow patches of white. Moore strengthened the shading between and around the seated women to add depth to the enclosed space and project further the bright monumentality of the figures seemingly too large for their subterranean surroundings. Moore’s use of drapery plays a significant part in describing the three-dimensional, naturalistic bodies of the women, curving around their shoulders and falling in tight, linear ripples to their calves. Its undulating articulation seems to tie them closer together. Their arms, individuating their actions, demonstrate Moore’s two-way sectional technique, which he described as the use of line to define ‘both down the form as well as around it, without the use of light and shade modelling’ (cited in Alan G. Wilkinson, The Drawings of Henry Moore, exh cat, The Tate Gallery, London 1977, p. 16). In contrast to the depiction of limbs, the figures’ torsos are empty as if hollowed or carved out, their heads highly abstracted in a sculptural manner characteristic of Moore’s drawings of the late 1920s and 30s. Their skeletal aspect closely corresponds with his transformation drawings inspired by found natural objects such as pebbles, shells and bones, which were then metamorphosed into sculptural forms. The luminous, rough textured appearance of the white, wax crayon extends the organic correlation, the effect of his palette as Geoffrey Grigson stated, like ‘the lichen on the grey rock, the coloured texture of weather-worn stone’ (cited in C. Stephens (ed.), Henry Moore, exh cat, Tate Publishing, London, 2010, p. 165). Moore has also introduced two shades of green into lines and

     

     

    areas of each figure, perhaps a further suggestion of nature outside the shelter or the unnatural phosphorescence of electric light.

     

    Three Women in a Shelter was executed on a page of Moore’s horizontal notebook in 1941. There are twelve known drawings attributed to the notebook,[4] which was subsequently disbound, most likely in preparation for the artist’s first solo exhibition in American at the Bucholtz Gallery, New York, in May 1943. Though no list of the forty exhibited drawings exists, the majority of pages from the notebook are now in private and public collections in the USA, including the Santa Barbara Museum of Art, California and The Art Institute of Chicago.

     


    HENRY MOORE OM, CH

     Castleford, Yorkshire 1898 - 1986 Much Hadham, Herts

     

     

    The seventh child of Raymond Spencer and Mary Moore, Henry was born in Castleford, Yorkshire in 1898. His paternal great-grandfather was of Irish origin, but his father and grandfather were born in Yorkshire where, for two or three generations, they worked the land or went down the mines. At the age of twelve Moore obtained a grant to study at the Grammar School in Castleford where he was inspired by his art teacher to pursue a career in the arts. In 1916 he began to teach, but by February 1917 he had joined the army and left to fight in

    France.

     

    After being wounded in action in November 1917 at the battle of Cambrai, Moore was excused from active service. He returned to England, where he became a physical education instructor in the army. At the end of the war, Moore received a veteran’s grant to study at Leeds School of Art and in 1921 he joined a course at the Royal College of Art in London. A further grant enabled him to travel extensively from 1925, visiting Rome, Florence, Venice, Ravenna and Paris, where he met Picasso, Giacometti, Ernst, Eluard and Breton among others.

     

    On returning from his travels Moore was appointed Professor of Sculpture at the Royal College of Art where he worked two days a week until 1931, as well as teaching at the Chelsea School of Art until 1939. He was appointed an Official War Artist during the Second World War from 1940–1942 for which he made a series of drawings of people sheltering in the London Underground, as well as studies of miners at the coal face. In these pictures he frequently used

    watercolour over wax crayon.

     

    After the war Moore enjoyed a great deal of success, with his works receiving critical acclaim all around the world. He executed many major commissions for museums, public institutions, private collectors and municipal buildings and as a result he became one of the most famous British artists of the twentieth century.

     

    At the beginning of the 1970s Moore created a foundation, the aim of which was to promote public awareness of sculpture and to protect his own work for the future. Located in his home village of Much Hadham, Hertfordshire, the foundation houses a library, archives and a collection of drawings, prints, maquettes and sculptures by the artist. Heavily influenced by the work of Michelangelo, Moore created monumental works in marble, stone and bronze and was enthralled by the theme of the family, and in particular the mother and child. His unique oeuvre draws inspiration from prehistoric, archaic, Egyptian, African, Mexican and Roman sculpture.

    Throughout his career he was noted for his output of graphic art – drawings, watercolours, etchings and lithographs which were not necessarily related to individual sculptures.

    [1] The Henry Moore Foundation acquired Hoglands in 2004 and opened it to the public in 2007.

    [2] David Mellor suggests that Moore also used news reportage photography as a source for his imagery. David Alan Mellor, “And Oh! The Stench’: Spain, The Blitz, Abjection and the Shelter Drawings’, Henry Moore, exh cat, Tate Publishing, 2010, pp. 52–63.

    [3] Moore executed several drawings representing The Fates winding wool, one of which would later be translated into tapestry [AG 48.27]. See Ann Garrould (ed.), Henry Moore, Complete Drawings 1940–1949, vol. 3, Lund Humphries, Aldershot, 2001, p. 284.

    [4] See Ann Garrould (ed.), Henry Moore, The Complete Drawings 1940–1949, vol. 3, London, 2001, pp. 81–83.

The seventh child of Raymond Spencer Moore and Mary Moore, Henry Moore was born in Castleford, Yorkshire in 1898. His paternal great grandfather was of Irish origin but his father and grandfather were born in Yorkshire where, for two or three generations, they worked the land or went down the mines. At the age of twelve Moore obtained a grant to study at the Grammar School in Castleford where he was inspired by his art teacher to pursue a career in the arts. In 1916 he began to teach but by February 1917 he had joined the army and left to fight in France.


After being wounded in action in November 1917 at the battle of Cambrai, Moore was excused from active service. He returned to England where he became a physical education instructor in the army. At the end of the war he received a veteran's grant to study at the Leeds School of Art and in 1921 he joined a course at the Royal College of Art in London. A further grant enabled Henry Moore to travel extensively from 1925 and he visited Rome, Florence, Venice, Ravenna and Paris where he met Picasso, Giacometti, Ernst, Eluard and Breton.


On returning from his travels Henry Moore was appointed Professor of Sculpture at the Royal College of Art where he worked two days a week until 1931, also working at the Chelsea School of Art until 1939. Moore was appointed an official war artist for the Second World War from 1940-1942 and during this period he made a series of drawings of people sheltering in the London Underground, as sell as studies of miners at the coal face. In these pictures he frequently used watercolour over wax crayon.


After the war he enjoyed a great deal of success with his works receiving critical acclaim all around the world. Henry Moore executed many major commissions for Museums, Public Institutions, private collectors and municipal buildings and as a result he became one of the most famous British artists of the twentieth century.


At the beginning of the 1970s Henry Moore created a foundation, the aim of which was to promote public awareness in sculpture and protect his own work for the future. Located at Much Haddam, the village where the artist lived, the foundation houses a library, archives and a collection of drawings, prints, maquettes and sculptures by the artist.


Heavily influenced by the work of Michelangelo, Moore created monumental works in marble, stone and bronze and was enthralled by the theme of the family, and in particular the mother and child. Henry Moore’s unique oeuvre draws inspiration from prehistoric, archaic, Egyptian, African, Mexican and roman sculpture and throughout his career he was also noted for his output of graphic art - drawings, watercolours, etchings and lithographs which were not necessarily closely related to individual sculptures.


Gallery Information +44 20 7493 3939
  • Opening Hours
  • Monday - Friday 10.00am - 6.00pm
    Except Bank Holidays
    Saturday - By Appointment

    33 New Bond Street, London, W1S 2RS

    147 New Bond Street London, W1S 2TS

  • Richard Green Apps
  • appstore iPad
  • appstore iPhone
  • Google Play