Dame Barbara Hepworth

Four Forms

Polished brass on a slate base: 13.5(h) x 0(w) in /

34.3(h) x 0(w) cm

Numbered 6/9 on the base

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BS 302

 

DAME BARBARA HEPWORTH

 Wakefield 1903 – 1975 St. Ives

 

Four Forms

 

Numbered 6/9 on the base

Polished brass: 13 ½ in / 34.3 cm height

On a slate base

Based on an aluminium prototype executed in 1971

and cast in 1974 in a numbered edition of 9 + 0

BH 529

 

Provenance:

Estate of the artist, then by descent

Private collection, acquired through the New Art Centre, Salisbury in 2003

Beaux Arts Gallery, London

Jeffrey M Kaplan, acquired from the above in 2005

Richard Green, London

 

Exhibited:

Zurich, Marlborough Galerie, Barbara Hepworth, August–October 1975, cat. 17, illustrated p. 37

New York, Marlborough Gallery, Barbara Hepworth: Carvings and Bronzes, May–June 1979, cat. 60, illustrated p. 63, cast 2

East Winterslow (near Salisbury), New Art Centre Sculpture Park and Gallery, Barbara Hepworth: Polished Bronzes, December 2001 – February 2002, cast 5

London, Beaux Arts Gallery, St Ives, June–July 2004, illus. in colour, cast 6

Nancy, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Barbara Hepworth, January–March 2006, cat. 49, illustrated in colour p.108

London, Beaux Arts Gallery, St Ives, February–April 2007, illustrated in colour, cast 9

East Winterslow (near Salisbury), New Art Centre, The Hepworth Wakefield: A Celebration, April–May 2011, cast 9

London, Richard Green Gallery, Nicholson Hepworth Moore, October 2012, cat. 14, illustrated in colour, cast 1

Kendal, Abbot Hall Art Gallery, Barbara Hepworth: Within the Landscape, July–September 2014, illustrated in colour p.52

 

This work will be included as BH 529 in the forthcoming catalogue raisonné of Barbara Hepworth’s sculptures being revised by Dr Sophie Bowness.

 

 

 

 

Four Forms, executed in polished brass in 1974, bears a striking resemblance to an earlier, slightly larger work of polished bronze entitled Four Figures Waiting, 1968, in the collection of the Cecil Higgins Museum, Bedford (BH 461). Reimagining the theme, Hepworth employs similar tall, curved elements, but the space between them has contracted resulting in a more unified arrangement, perhaps signifying the figures meeting. Each elegant shape, cut with a straight horizontal edge at top and base, varies slightly in height and width. Two forms are pierced with a circular hole reflected on the opposite polished surface, the largest possessing two placed on a diagonal trajectory. The interrelation of forms representing figures had always interested Hepworth, but the experience of observing a crowd in the Piazza San Marco, Venice in 1950 lent the subject an added impetus: ‘as soon as people, or groups of people, entered the Piazza they responded to the proportions of the architectural space…They grouped themselves in unconscious recognition of their importance in relation to each other as human beings.’[1]

 

The open individual forms in the present work, cut and shaped from sheet brass (a light, tensile metal in contrast to the earlier more solid, bronze forms), also recall the large scale aluminium Winged Figure, 1962, commissioned for the John Lewis Oxford Street department store. Hepworth made a series of stringed works using sheet metal from 1956 onwards, including Orpheus (Maquette 2) [T00955] in the collection of the Tate.

 

 

 

 

DAME BARBARA HEPWORTH

 Wakefield 1903 – 1975 St. Ives

 

Barbara Hepworth was born in Wakefield, Yorkshire in 1903, the first of four children of Herbert Hepworth (a civil engineer) and his wife Gertrude Johnson. She was educated at Wakefield Girls’ High School before studying at Leeds School of Art from 1920, where she met the sculptor Henry Moore. After taking the two-year course in a single year, she moved to The Royal College of Art, London in 1921. Following a post-graduate year there, Hepworth was short-listed for the Prix de Rome and was awarded a year’s travel scholarship. She moved to Florence in 1924 where she married fellow student and winner of the Prix de Rome, John Skeaping in May 1925. They later moved to Rome where Hepworth received a thorough training in carving and began working with stone. In November 1926 they returned to London, moving in 1928 to 7 The Mall Studios in Hampstead. Hepworth and Skeaping held joint exhibitions at the Beaux Arts Gallery in 1928 and at Arthur Tooth & Son in 1930. Their son, Paul was born in August 1929, but their marriage had already begun to deteriorate when Hepworth met Ben Nicholson in 1931. Hepworth and Skeaping divorced in 1933. Nicholson moved into Hepworth’s studio in 1932 and they held a joint exhibition of their work at Tooth’s Gallery that same year and again at the Lefevre Gallery in 1933.

 

A member of the Seven & Five Society, Unit One and Abstraction-Création during the 1930s, Hepworth began making entirely abstract sculpture in 1934. She also gave birth to triplets Simon, Rachel and Sarah that year. Nicholson and Hepworth were married in 1938, moving to Cornwall a year later, at first staying in the house of their friend, the author Adrian Stokes and his wife Margaret Mellis. Hepworth would remain in St Ives until her death in 1975. During the first three years of the war, Hepworth was unable to carve, though she drew at night after the domestic demands of the day. Her working conditions became easier after the family moved into a larger house in Chy-an-Kerris, Carbis Bay in 1942 and Hepworth secured a studio. The first retrospective exhibition of Hepworth’s work was held at Temple Newsam, Leeds in 1943. She represented British sculpture at the Venice Biennale in 1950 and was commissioned by the Arts Council to produce two sculptures for the Festival of Britain in 1951. Two further retrospectives in Wakefield in 1951 and at The Whitechapel Art Gallery, London in 1954 helped to confirm her Post-War reputation.

 

Hepworth bought Trewyn Studio, St Ives in 1949 and lived there permanently from 1950 following her separation from Nicholson and their divorce in 1951. In 1953 her first child, Paul Skeaping, was killed in an air crash. Hepworth travelled to Greece in 1954 in an effort to recover from his sudden death. Large public commissions such as Single Form, erected outside the United Nations Building, New York in 1964 helped to confirm Hepworth’s international standing, as did the award of the Grand Prix at the 1959 São Paulo Biennial. She was awarded a CBE in 1958 and appointed DBE in 1965, the same year in which she was elected a Trustee of the Tate Gallery. Along with her friend the potter Bernard Leach, Hepworth was awarded the Freedom of St Ives in 1968 in acknowledgement of her importance to the town. Hepworth died in 1975 as a result of a fire in her studio. According to her wishes, Trewyn studio was opened to the public as the Barbara Hepworth Museum in 1976 and is now part of the Tate Gallery.

 

[1] The artist cited in C. Stephens (ed.), Barbara Hepworth: Centenary, exh cat, Tate Publishing, London, 2003, p.99.

Post War BritishSculptureDame Barbara Hepworth